Published January 2023 on YouTube

Dr. Andy Galpin: Optimal Protocols to Build Strength & Grow Muscles | Huberman Lab Guest Series

1. Strength Training Benefits

Strength and Hypertrophy:Dr. Andy Galpin explains the benefits of strength and hypertrophy training for everyday people, athletes, and recreational exercisers, beyond just getting bigger muscles. He discusses the importance of muscle growth for longevity and overall health.
Benefits of Exercise:Andy Galpin emphasizes the importance of understanding the various benefits of exercise beyond just muscle growth and fat loss. Resistance exercise and strength training are crucial for combating neuromuscular aging, while endurance training has independent benefits such as improving cognitive tasks and immune function.
Strength Training Benefits:Andy and Andrew discuss the importance of strength training for neuromuscular activation and how it helps fight the loss of aging. They also emphasize the need for preservation of muscle power and strength, especially as people age, and how strength training is the only exercise route to keep the nervous system healthy and young.
Strength Training Benefits:Andy and Andrew discuss the benefits of strength training for people of all ages, including improvements in muscle size and hypertrophy. They also emphasize the importance of maintaining the neuromuscular system through movement and resistance training to keep the brain young and healthy. Age is not a limiting factor, and even those over 90 can see significant improvements in just 12 weeks of training.

2. Benefits of Strength Training

Andy Galpin explains the three benefits of exercise: looking good, feeling good, and playing good. He highlights the potency of strength training for changing aesthetics and its immediate feedback loop that drives adherence.

3. Momentous, Eight Sleep, Levels

Andrew discusses the importance of using high-quality, single ingredient formulations for supplementation and introduces Momentous, a supplement company that meets those standards. Title: Optimize Your Sleep Topics: Sleep, Temperature Summary: Andrew shares his experience with Eight Sleep mattress covers and how they have transformed his sleep by adjusting the temperature of his sleeping environment to optimize his stages of sleep. Title: Real-Time Health Feedback Topics: Blood Glucose, Levels Summary: Andrew introduces Levels, a program that uses continuous glucose monitoring to provide real-time feedback on how different foods and activities affect your health. He shares how he has learned from using Levels to optimize his schedule from work to exercise and sleep.

4. Strength vs Hypertrophy

Strength vs Hypertrophy:Andy Galpin explains the difference between strength and hypertrophy, emphasizing that while they are related, they are not the same thing. He uses examples from powerlifting and bodybuilding to illustrate the difference between the two, and notes that while it is possible to get stronger without adding muscle, there is a strong relationship between the two.
Strength vs Hypertrophy:Andy explains the difference between strength and hypertrophy, emphasizing that strength is a measure of force capability while hypertrophy is simply a measure of muscle size. He also discusses the two unique components of strength: physiology and mechanics.

5. Muscle as an Organ

Muscle as an Organ:Andy Galpin explains that muscle is not just a tissue but an organ that controls various functions in the body, including blood glucose regulation and immune system control. Although connective tissue also adapts to strength training, its plasticity is much lower than skeletal muscle.
Strength Training and Injury Prevention:Andy and Andrew discuss how strength training can reduce injury risk, specifically for stress and strain injuries caused by connective tissue adaptations. They also touch on the difficulty of assessing tissue tolerance and share Andy's personal experience with patel attendant biopsies.

6. Strong Bones & Women's Physiology

Strong Bones:Andrew and Andy discuss the effects of exercise on bone health, specifically how load-bearing exercise can stimulate the release of osteocalcin, which enhances neuron health and memory. They also touch on the importance of resistance training for building stronger bones, particularly in one's 20s and 30s, but note that even small changes can occur later in life.
Women's Physiology:Andy Galpin explains the importance of understanding women's physiology and biochemistry when it comes to strength training and nutrition. He recommends working with a qualified physician and getting blood chemistry and menstrual cycle tests done to get a better picture of hormonal changes throughout the cycle. Women's adaptations are significantly diminished relative to if they started in their teens and 20s, but there is hope with the right guidance.

7. Strength Training Insights

Strength Training Adaptations:Andy Galpin explains that strength training causes improvements in the nervous system's ability to send signals through motor units, which innervate multiple muscle fibers. These fibers are generally of the same type, either fast twitch or slow twitch.
Benefits of Tranny:Andy explains how neuromuscular improvements occur with tranny, including improvements in firing rate, synchronization, and calcium recycling. He also discusses how acetylcholine release is faster with tranny, which leads to faster signal recycling. These benefits lead to improvements in muscle fiber contractility, allowing for increased force and velocity independent of muscle size changes.
Muscle Fiber Efficiency:Andy and Andrew discuss the efficiency of skeletal muscle contraction and how it can be improved without changing muscle size or adding contractile units. They also explain the differences between slow and fast twitch muscle fibers and how endurance training can affect their size. Additionally, they touch on the importance of penation angle and how it affects force production and velocity.
Muscle Strength vs. Size:Andy explains the importance of increasing storage of phosphocreatine for muscle contraction and how lattice spacing affects muscle strength and size. He clarifies that strength and hypertrophy are not the same thing and that increasing muscle size does not necessarily mean an increase in strength.

8. AG1 (Athletic Greens)

Andrew discusses how Athletic Greens helps him meet his foundational nutritional needs by providing vitamins, minerals, probiotics, and adaptogens. Listeners can claim a special offer for Athletic Greens at

9. Muscle Hypertrophy

Andy explains the process of muscle hypertrophy, including the role of protein synthesis and changes in muscle microstructure. He also highlights the independent pathways for protein synthesis through exercise and protein ingestion.

10. Muscle Growth Pathways

Exercise and Protein Synthesis:Andy Galpin explains that while endurance training does activate a different pathway than strength training, it does not lead to an increase in protein synthesis. Rather, it activates an energy signaling pathway.
Muscle Growth Pathways:Andy and Andrew discuss the mtor and ampk pathways and how they are related to muscle growth. They explain that the mtor pathway is associated with cell growth, while the ampk pathway is related to cardiovascular exercise. They also discuss protein synthesis and how it occurs through combining amino acids to form peptides and eventually proteins.
Protein Synthesis Insights:Andy explains that protein synthesis is not just about growing more muscle mass, but also regulating the immune system and protein turnover. Autophagy, the protein breakdown of unneeded or damaged protein, is an important process for cleaning out and replacing proteins. Protein ingestion activates the cascade and increases protein synthesis independent of exercise.

11. Muscle Hypertrophy

Andy and Andrew discuss the different types of muscle hypertrophy and how it relates to strength training. They explain the differences between contractile protein hypertrophy and Sarcoplasmic hypertrophy, and how they can occur at different points in a person's training experience.

12. Muscle Hypertrophy Insights

Muscle Hypertrophy Mechanisms:Andy explains the role of myonucleation in muscle hypertrophy and how satellite cells play a crucial role in increasing the diameter of muscle fibers. The amount of hypertrophy is limited by the amount of nuclei, and muscle memory helps in regaining muscle faster.
Muscle Memory:Andrew and Andy discuss the phenomenon of muscle memory and how it's largely a nervous system phenomenon. They also explore the parallels between strength and hypertrophy changes and neuroplasticity, highlighting the numerous adaptive changes that occur in cells and nerves when experiencing increases in strength and hypertrophy.
Muscle Physiology Insights:Andy shares insights on muscle physiology, including the role of nuclei in muscle growth and tissue repair, and the importance of genetic variation in recovery. While there is still much to learn about muscle physiology, there is a large evidence base for how to achieve specific adaptations through training and nutrition.

13. Strength Essentials

Strength and Hypertrophy Essentials:Andy Galpin explains the non-negotiables of any strength and hypertrophy training program, including adherence and progressive overload. He emphasizes the importance of differentiating between optimizing strength, hypertrophy, or a combination of both to achieve desired adaptations.
Overload, Adaptation, and Individualization:Andy explains the importance of consistent overload for adaptation to occur in strength and hypertrophy training. He also emphasizes the need for individualization based on personal preference and equipment availability to achieve the appropriate target.
Balancing Specificity and Variation:Andy Galpin discusses the importance of balancing specificity and variation in exercise to achieve optimal adaptation. He explains that over-reliance on specificity can lead to overuse injuries and hamper consistency, while too much variation can lack specificity and hinder progress. The execution of exercises, not the exercises themselves, determines adaptation, and manipulating modifiable variables is key to achieving desired outcomes.

14. InsideTracker

Andrew takes a brief break to acknowledge their sponsor, Inside Tracker. Inside Tracker is a personalized nutrition platform that analyzes data from your blood and DNA to help you better understand your body and reach your health goals.

15. Training Strategies

Speed and Power:Andy Galpin explains the three to five concept for improving speed and power through intentional execution of exercises with sub maximal weights. The same concept can be applied to strength training as well.
Effective Weight Training:Andy Galpin shares a simple and effective approach to weight training that involves increasing load or volume by 3-5% per week. This can be combined with other types of weight training, such as speed and power exercises, and can be used in various periodization strategies.
Periodization Methods:Andy Galpin discusses two popular periodization methods: linear and undulating. While both are equally effective, linear periodization provides focus on one outcome at a time, while undulating periodization allows for multiple styles of training. Choosing the right method depends on your specific goals.
Effective Periodization:Andy Galpin discusses the importance of periodization in program design and how to effectively plan for specific goals. He emphasizes the need for foresight and understanding the trade-offs between different periodization styles.

16. Effective Warm Ups

Effective Warm Up:Andy Galpin explains that a good warm up is dependent on the person and some respond well to a minimum warm up while others require a longer one. He shares that he has worked with professional fighters and baseball players who require a longer warm up to perform better.
Power Endurance:Andy Galpin discusses power endurance conditioning and the importance of a proper warm-up for optimal power production. He emphasizes the need to differentiate training for speed, power, strength, or hypertrophy and to preserve intensity and volume accordingly.
Effective Warm Ups:Andy Galpin shares insights on the importance of warm ups in training. He emphasizes that the warm up should be as long as it takes to get to peak power and that a general global warm up scheme is necessary. Additionally, he discusses how the warm up can differ depending on what you're training for.
Effective Warm Ups:Andy Galpin shares his insights on the importance of warm ups and how to do them effectively. He emphasizes the need for a general warm up of 5-10 minutes, with dynamic movements being preferred over static ones. He also stresses the importance of specificity within each movement and prioritizing the first exercise of the day.

17. Rep Cadence Explained

Rep Cadence:Andy and Andrew discuss the importance of rep cadence in resistance training and how it varies depending on the goal. They explore the different variables that can be modified to achieve different adaptations.
Strength vs Hypertrophy:Andy explains that for strength, lifting heavier at a faster rate of acceleration is key, while hypertrophy is about causing the most amount of muscle size. Optimal cadence for hypertrophy is up to personal preference, but triphasic training can be effective.
Rep Cadences:Andy and Andrew discuss the importance of rep cadences in developing strength and hypertrophy. They explore the different options available and how to thread them throughout an exercise bout. They also touch on the benefits of bodyweight training and isometrics for building muscle size.
Strength Training Protocol:Andy and Andrew discuss the three one one strength training protocol, which focuses on controlling the eccentric portion of the exercise, pausing briefly, and then accelerating as fast as possible during the concentric portion. This protocol is a safety measure to prevent slamming weights onto the body and can be used for a variety of exercises.
Rep Cadence for Hypertrophy:Andy Galpin suggests that a rep cadence of 311 or 312 is effective for hypertrophy, but emphasizes that it's just a method choice. He also recommends playing with time under tension and individualizing programs based on available equipment. Andrew Huberman shares his hotel room workout routine, including jump rope and configured dips.

18. Breathing Techniques

Breathing Techniques:Andy and Andy discuss the Valsalva technique, a breathing maneuver used to create intra-abdominal pressure and spinal stability during repetitions and work. They emphasize the importance of being able to regulate blood pressure and spine control while breathing, and provide tips for creating total intra-abdominal pressure.
Breathing Techniques:Andy Galpin explains how breathing techniques can help stabilize the spine and prevent passing out during heavy sets of exercises, especially those that are loaded on the body. He suggests taking a large inhale through the abdomen, not the shoulders, and expanding the belly in all four areas to brace the body.
Breathing and Bracing:Andrew and Andy discuss the importance of proper breathing and bracing techniques for weightlifting and exercise. They explain how to use air and musculature to create a brace and avoid over-compression, and emphasize the need for a balance between the two.
Breathing Techniques:Andy and Andrew discuss the importance of breathing during exercise, including when to inhale and exhale and how to strategize breathing during multiple repetitions. They also touch on the use of grunting and screaming during exercise.

19. Adjusting Your Workout

Adjusting Your Workout:Andy and Andy discuss the concept of autoregulation in workout routines, which allows for adjustments based on daily biomarkers and performance markers. They also clarify the difference between a power and strength workout, with the load being the main differentiator.
Improving Strength:Andy Galpin discusses the importance of lifting at 70% or higher to improve strength and introduces a chart called Prilepin's chart that shows how much time to spend at each intensity range. He also emphasizes the importance of specificity in training and how it can be balanced with variation to avoid overuse injury.
Specificity and Injury:Andy Galpin explains the Bulgarian Method and how specificity can increase strength but also increase the risk of injury. Andrew Huberman adds a joke about how repeated movements can affect one's physique. The goal of specificity is to win medals, not necessarily to promote longevity.
Optimal Rep Ranges:Andy and Andrew discuss the Prilepin's Chart and how it can guide strength training. They explain the ideal rep ranges and sets for different percentages of one rep max, highlighting the importance of spending time in the 55% to 65% range for skill accumulation and tissue tolerance. They also provide a link to the chart for listeners to reference.

20. Strength Training Insights

Training to Failure:Andy and Andrew discuss the concept of training to failure and its effectiveness in strength gains. They suggest that beginners should try it to get a guideline of their 100% capacity, while intermediates and advanced lifters can achieve most of what they need by getting to technical failure.
Exercise Selection:Andrew discusses the importance of exercise selection and frequency of implementation for making progress in workouts. He highlights the difference between local and systemic recovery and how it varies from person to person. He advises against bench pressing alone and suggests using a spotter.
Muscle Training Frequency:Andy and Andrew discuss the frequency of muscle training and how it relates to recovery time and muscle fatigue. They explore how athletes train their muscles every day and how it comes down to volume, movement type, and conditioning.
Recovery and Training:Andy and Andrew discuss the importance of recovery time when training for hypertrophy and how adjusting repetition ranges and intensity can affect recovery time. They also give advice for beginners on how to start training and experimenting with exercises.
Exercise Variation:Andy Galpin discusses the Conjugate Model used by powerlifters and how making small variations in exercise can lead to consistent heavy training without the need for frequent periodization planning. He also advises against changing exercises too often and suggests creating standardization within them to see progress before making changes.

21. Strength Training Basics

Strength Training Basics:Andy and Andrew discuss the basics of strength training, emphasizing the importance of compound movements for both power and strength. They explain the difference between selecting exercises based on muscle groups versus movement patterns and stress the need for a reasonable balance between upper and lower push, pull, and rotational movements.
Strength Training Tips:Andy and Andrew discuss the importance of exercise choice and order in strength training. They recommend non-fatiguing movements like rotational exercises and doing them at the beginning of the workout when the nervous system is fresh.
Maximizing Strength:Andy and Andrew discuss the importance of focusing solely on strength training if you want to maximize strength gains. They caution against adding in other exercises that could compromise recovery and potentially lead to muscle damage.
Efficient Strength Training:Andy and Andrew discuss the most efficient ways to train for strength, including the benefits and drawbacks of supersets. They also touch on the importance of recovery time and how to progress over time.

22. Sets & Rest Periods; Stretching

Gym Mindset:Andrew and Andy discuss the optimal behavior and mindset in between sets during workouts. They explore the gym lore and practical applications for speed, power, strength, and hypertrophy. They also touch on the importance of mindfulness and focus during exercise.
Stretching and Exercise:Andy Galpin explains that pre-exercise stretching can be detrimental for maximum power production, speed, and strength. However, stretching for hypertrophy is not affected by intensity or outcome, so it doesn't matter if you're pre-fatigued or pre-stretched. If you need to stretch to get in the right position, it's worth sacrificing a small percentage of power to avoid injury.

23. Power Development

Andy Galpin provides a variety of methods to develop power, including repetition range, plyometrics, medicine ball throws, sprints, and weightlifting movements. He emphasizes that snatches and cleaning jerks are the most effective exercise choice for power development, and suggests clapping push-ups, speed squats, and kettlebell swings as other options.

24. Advanced Strength Training

Strength Training Variables:Andy Galpin explains the differences between strength and power training, emphasizing the importance of exercise choice and the need to be careful about the eccentric portion of the exercises. He also discusses how strength training requires less athletic movements and highlights the effectiveness of carries, particularly for the upper body.
Advanced Strength Training:Andy and Andrew discuss advanced strength training techniques, including eccentric overload training where you can load at greater than 100% of your one repetition max, and yoke walks which are very effective for strength. They caution listeners to be careful and do the proper exercises in their position.
Cluster Sets:Andy explains the effectiveness of cluster sets for strength, power, and hypertrophy. By taking mini breaks in between every repetition, you can keep the force output high and avoid fatigue. This technique is great for some exercises like deadlifts, but not for others like bench presses.
Training Strategies:Andy discusses different training strategies such as cluster sets and dynamic variable resistance to help improve strength and performance. These strategies can be tailored to an individual's needs and can be used for compound movements or primary exercises.
Dynamic Variable Resistance:Andy discusses the concept of dynamic variable resistance and how it can be used to train the full part of the strength curve. This technique involves using resistance bands or chains on the bar to challenge both stronger and weaker areas with heavier and lighter weights. It's a fun and effective training technique that can be used for various exercises.

25. Power and Strength Training

Andrew and Andy discuss the differences between training for power and training for strength. They cover the ideal weight loads, number of repetitions, and rest times for each type of training. They also emphasize the importance of being mindful of other forms of training that can potentially compromise recovery for power or strength promoting programs.

26. Intention, Focus & Exercise

Andy and Andrew discuss the importance of intention in strength training, emphasizing that even with low loads, contracting as hard as possible can still lead to strength gains. They also stress the importance of being intentional and avoiding distractions during workouts to improve training quality and see results.

27. Muscle Growth Mechanisms

Muscle Hypertrophy:Andy Galpin explains that inducing muscle hypertrophy involves giving the muscle the right stimuli through resistance training. While there are hormonal and nutritional factors to consider, the training itself is "idiot proof" in terms of programming. There are countless styles of training that can work, as what drives changes in hypertrophy is much more well-rounded than changes in strength and power.
Muscle Growth Mechanisms:Andy and Andrew discuss the mechanisms behind muscle growth and how training frequency and intensity can affect it. They explain that as long as one of the variables (frequency, intensity, or volume) is high, muscle growth can be induced. They also touch on the effectiveness of blood flow restriction training.
Muscle Growth Mechanisms:Andy explains the three mechanisms for muscle growth: mechanical tension, muscle damage, and protein synthesis. He emphasizes that muscle damage is not necessary for growth and that the key is to provide a convincing enough reason for nuclei to spend resources on building new muscle. He also discusses the importance of amino acids and carbohydrates in the synthesis process and the concept of protein redistribution.

28. Hypertrophy Exercises

Exercise Choice:Andy and Andrew discuss how to choose exercises based on movement patterns or muscle groups, and the effectiveness of each method for muscle hypertrophy. They also acknowledge the limitations of research on trained individuals and suggest giving autonomy to clients in selecting exercises.
Hypertrophy Exercises:Andy Galpin emphasizes the importance of incorporating both bilateral and unilateral exercises in hypertrophy training to avoid imbalances. He also notes that the choice of implement is a matter of personal preference and that machines can be a useful resource for targeting specific muscle groups.
Squat Variations:Andy explains how different squat variations can emphasize different muscle groups, and why it's important to choose the right variation for your goals. He also discusses the benefits of using machines to isolate specific muscle groups for targeted training.

29. Balanced Hypertrophy Training

Prioritizing Body Parts:Andrew and Andy discuss the importance of prioritizing specific body parts in order to achieve balanced hypertrophy. They explore the genetic factors that influence muscle growth and provide insights on how to tailor workouts accordingly.
Balanced Hypertrophy Training:Andrew and Andy discuss the importance of balanced muscle development in hypertrophy training. They emphasize the need to maintain motor patterns and neurological control, and suggest low volume sets to touch on muscle groups that may be neglected.

30. Exercise Order

Exercise Order:Andy and Andrew discuss how exercise choice, volume, and intensity interact with each other and how exercise order can impact the effectiveness of a workout. They explore different strategies for exercise order, including pre-fatigue and compound movements, and emphasize the importance of focusing on total volume achieved per muscle group per week.
Muscle Volume:Andy explains that a minimum of ten working sets per week per muscle group is needed to optimize muscle growth. Indirect targeting can also be included, but it is important to maintain balance in the workout routine.
Building Muscle:Andrew and Andy discuss the number of sets needed per week to maintain or grow muscles. While there is no exact rule, the minimum number is ten, but realistically, most people need 15-20 working sets per week. For natural athletes, the optimal number may be 30, but it's hard to get that much work in and may even be detrimental.
Muscle Activation:Andy explains how to achieve ten sets per week per muscle group and how exercises determine the movement plane, joint used, and muscle groups involved. He also discusses that exercises do not determine adaptations, applications do.
Muscle Activation:Andy and Andrew discuss muscle activation and how personal mechanics can affect muscle activation during exercise. They also provide tips on how to isolate and activate difficult muscle groups, such as the lats.
Athletic Development:Andrew and Andy discuss the importance of early athletic development and how it can impact muscle activation later in life. They encourage parents to expose their children to a variety of sports and activities to promote neural and muscular diversity. They also touch on the challenges of isolating certain muscle groups and how early development can impact this.

31. Muscle Hypertrophy Insights

Muscle Hypertrophy:Andy and Andrew discuss the optimal number of sets for muscle hypertrophy and how to determine if you're a responder or non-responder to training. They also touch on the importance of finding the right number of repetitions per set to achieve your goals.
Breaking Plateaus:Andy and Andrew discuss how to break through plateaus in hypertrophy training. They explain the importance of individual data and how to identify non-responders. They also suggest two methods to break through plateaus: going heavier or going higher in repetition range.

32. Hypertrophy and Strength

Repetition Ranges:Andy Galpin explains that the number of repetitions required to induce hypertrophy is somewhere between 4 to 30 reps, with the first 20 feeling light. The goal is to contract the muscle as hard as possible on each repetition, getting somewhat close to failure, which is defined as the point at which you can no longer move the resistance in good form.
Failure in Exercise:Andy and Andrew discuss the benefits of going to failure in exercise and when it's appropriate to do so, including on safer exercises or as the last movement of the day. Recovery is also important and can vary among individuals.
Rest and Hypertrophy:Andy and Andrew discuss the interplay between rest and hypertrophy in strength training. Recent research shows that rest periods of up to three to five minutes between sets are fine for moderate to newly trained individuals, but the metabolic challenge is lower. To compensate, one needs to increase the challenge in either mechanical tension or volume.
Hypertrophy and Strength:Andy Galpin and Andrew Huberman discuss the best way to train for hypertrophy and strength, including the importance of total volume and adapting workouts based on goals and circumstances. They also explore the benefits of high repetition ranges and the flexibility of workout structure.

33. Efficient Muscle Building

Workout Frequency:Andy Galpin discusses the challenges of maintaining workout frequency and total duration, and suggests a more resilient approach of doing a combination of whole body and body part split workouts for most people.
Efficient Muscle Building:Andy and Andrew discuss how to build muscle efficiently with shorter workouts, targeting multiple muscle groups with a single exercise, and avoiding workout skipping. They also touch on the importance of isolating certain muscle groups like hamstrings.
Efficient Resistance Training:Andy and Andrew discuss the benefits of efficient resistance training, including how to hit muscle groups efficiently and effectively in a shorter period of time. They also explore the idea of not having to go to failure to evoke strength and hypertrophy adaptations.

34. Muscle Training Tips

Muscle Hypertrophy:Andy Galpin explains the steps to grow a muscle and discusses the ideal frequency for training a muscle group for hypertrophy. He also shares his thoughts on training sooner than 48 hours and the psychological benefits of taking a week-long layoff.
Muscle Hypertrophy:Andrew and Andy discuss the optimal time frame for muscle training and the effects of waiting longer than 48 hours to train a muscle. They also explore the possibility of muscle atrophy and the importance of total volume in muscle training.
Hypertrophy Techniques:Andrew and Andy discuss the challenges of hitting sufficient volume for hypertrophy and share their personal techniques for stimulating muscle growth, including pre-fatigue and force repetitions. They also emphasize the importance of understanding that exercise adaptation numbers are gradients, not hard lines.
Strength Training Tips:Andy and Andrew discuss the ideal repetition ranges for strength training. They recommend training in the 5-8 repetition range for a combination of strength gains and hypertrophy. For those looking to maximize hypertrophy, spending most of the time in the 8-15 repetition range is recommended. To focus on strength gains without much hypertrophy, staying south of the 5 repetition range and doing more total sets is suggested.

35. Systemic Damage

Systemic Damage:Andy and Andrew discuss how to determine if your body needs complete rest or low level active rest, or exercise of a different kind. They talk about the importance of avoiding excessive damage and injury, and using subjective measures like soreness to determine whether or not to train. Additionally, they discuss using a variety of blood markers to assess systemic damage and recovery.
Muscle Damage Biomarkers:Andy Galpin explains how to identify and measure muscle damage using biomarkers like Rabdo, AST, and ALT ratios, and how they can help determine if there's a systemic problem or if the training volume is too high.
Indicators and Adjustments:Andy discusses indicators for training overload, including heart rate variability and resting heart rate, and emphasizes the importance of paying attention to trends over time. He also shares strategies for adjusting workouts based on individual needs and goals.

36. Cardio and Hypertrophy

Cardio and Hypertrophy:Andy Galpin explains that cardiovascular exercise can be combined with hypertrophy training as long as the total energy intake is balanced and endurance exercise forms are not the same working group and specifically the eccentric portion. Total volume of endurance work also needs to be considered. Higher intensity cardio can also be incorporated into a hypertrophy program as long as it is not too strenuous.
Fitness and Hypertrophy:Andy Galpin discusses the potential benefits of high-intensity training and endurance work for muscle growth. While high-intensity training can aid in hypertrophy, it shouldn't compromise recovery or primary training. Additionally, being physically fit can lead to more muscle growth during hypertrophy training.

37. Hypertrophy Training Protocols

Hypertrophy Training Overview:Andrew and Andy discuss the modifiable variables that will direct somebody towards hypertrophy, including exercise choice and order. They emphasize the importance of targeting all muscle groups and selecting exercises that can be performed safely and generate enough intensity. Consistency is key, and focusing on the same exercises can be beneficial.
Muscle Volume:Andrew and Andy discuss the importance of muscle volume for hypertrophy and the ideal number of sets per week per muscle group. They also touch on the importance of direct vs. indirect activation and the need for rear deltoid and neck work for postural and safety reasons.

38. Rear Deltoids and Neck

Andy Galpin recommends Eric Cressy's free videos to learn about exercises for the rear deltoids, with a focus on stabilizing the body to target the muscles. For neck exercises, isometrics are recommended over neck bridges, which can cause damage to the discs.

39. Hypertrophy Training Principles

Repetition Ranges:Andrew and Andy discuss the ideal repetition range for hypertrophy and balanced adaptations related to strength and hypertrophy. They also emphasize the importance of getting close to failure and occasionally hitting failure, while also cautioning against going to failure too often. Andy also shares a tip for those who want to go to failure more often by taking care of hidden stressors.
Hypertrophy Training Principles:Andy and Andrew discuss the principles of hypertrophy training, including the importance of managing stress and rest, the broad range of repetition and rest ranges, and the extensive kit of progression methods available. They also caution against certain exercises like plyometrics and Olympic weightlifting variations for hypertrophy training.

40. Cold Exposure and Hypertrophy

Cold Exposure and Hypertrophy:Andy and Andrew discuss the effects of cold exposure on hypertrophy training. They explain how cold exposure can blunt the hypertrophy response and suggest avoiding it immediately after or before a workout.
Recovery and Hypertrophy:Andy Galpin explains how recovery methods like icing can blunt hypertrophy gains, making it important to choose the right recovery method based on the training phase and goals. Cold showers are generally safe, but ice work may need to be avoided during hypertrophy-focused training phases.

41. Post-Workout Nutrition

Post-Workout Nutrition:Andrew discusses the importance of protein intake and spreading it out throughout the day for hypertrophy. He also talks about the post-workout feeding window and what people should ingest to facilitate muscle protein synthesis and recovery, including nutrition and supplementation.
Protein Intake:Andy and Andy discuss the importance of protein intake and how it varies based on body weight. They emphasize the need to maintain a high protein intake and discuss how timing is less important for protein, but crucial for carbohydrates.
Nutrient Ratios:Andy and Andrew discuss the ideal protein to carbohydrate ratio for different types of workouts. They recommend a one to one ratio for strength training and a higher ratio for conditioning workouts. They also stress the importance of fueling around training for hypertrophy and suggest a one to three ratio of carbs to protein.
The Creatine Effect:Andy and Andrew discuss the benefits of Creatine, the most effective supplement for strength, power and hypertrophy training. Creatine has positive adaptations across multiple physiological domains, including muscle recovery, muscle hypertrophy, cognitive function, decision making, memory, and even bone mineral density.
Creatine Dosage:Andy Galpin explains that the best form of Creatine is Creatine monohydrate and that the dosage should be based on physical size. He also mentions that the timing of taking Creatine is irrelevant.

42. Free Newsletter & Supporting the Podcast

Andrew shares how listeners can support the podcast for free by subscribing to the newsletter and leaving reviews on Spotify and Apple. He also mentions the Neural Network newsletter, which provides monthly summaries of podcast episodes and protocols discussed on the show, and is completely free to sign up for on the Huberman Lab website.